Palmanova, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy
Palmanova, also known as “Star city” because of the shape of its walls, was built by the Republic of Venice in 1593 as an outpost to defend its eastern borders by possible invasions of Ottoman Empire. In fact, Vienna, capitol of Austrian Empire, was besieged by Turkish armies in 1529 and 1683. Palmanova was never attacked.
The Venetian Engineering Corps planned and built the fortress town with the most advanced military engineering systems of that time.